1:17 PM 9/22/2020 – Blogs

 

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: Coronavirus may have spread via bathroom drains in Chinese high-rise
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 11:51:28 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from Business Insider.

  • The coronavirus may have spread through bathroom drains in a high-rise building in Guangzhou, China, a new study found.
  • Researchers have detected the virus in human feces before.
  • Now scientists think virus-laden feces particles could travel upward through an apartment building’s plumbing after a person flushes a toilet.
  • But only certain conditions make this scenario possible, like poor ventilation.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

In February, three families in a high-rise building in Guangzhou, China, tested positive for the coronavirus. They didn’t know each other, didn’t live on the same floor, and hadn’t come into contact.

So scientists started to suspect that the virus had spread through the building’s plumbing.

Researchers know live coronavirus can be found in human feces and that the virus can spread via small airborne particles called aerosols. So it’s not surprising that flushing a toilet can release “bioaerosols” coronavirus-laden poop particles that could infect other people. What’s more surprising is that these particles seemed to travel across a 12-story gap between apartments in Guangzhou.

In a study published Tuesday, scientists traced the Guangzhou outbreak to a five-person family living on the 15th floor. Four of the family members had traveled to Wuhan, China, in January, while the coronavirus was spreading across the city.

Shortly after the family returned home, two middle-aged couples one on the 25th floor and another on the 27th   started feeling sick as well. None of the other high-rise residents tested positive for the virus.

Footage showed that the families hadn’t shared an elevator while anyone was infectious, and there was no trace of the virus on the elevator button or in air ducts.

The scientists did find positive virus samples in the five-person family’s apartment, however specifically in the master bathroom. So the researchers released ethane gas down the family’s toilet, then checked for that gas in the apartments above. All of the families were under quarantine at the time, so there was no opportunity for the virus to spread through close physical contact.

Sure enough, the researchers found ethane in the middle-aged couples’ apartments, as well as in two other apartments on the 16th and 21st floors. That’s evidence that bioaerosols might have traveled through the plumbing system. Residents on the higher floors may have inhaled the particles directly or touched surfaces where the particles had landed in their bathrooms.

Certain apartments were more susceptible than others

The coronavirus typically spreads via respiratory droplets after an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. Researchers aren’t sure about the degree to which the virus gets transmitted via aerosols, since the tiny particles are extremely hard to trap and study without killing the virus.

But a 2018 study showed that bioaerosols generally could linger in the air for 30 minutes or more after a toilet flush.

Researchers think certain environments favor airborne transmission, specifically poorly ventilated rooms. The risk goes down when a space is well-ventilated: According to a May study, the amount of coronavirus aerosol was cut in half after 30 seconds in a well-ventilated room, compared with five minutes in a room with no ventilation.

In the Guangzhou building, the middle-aged couples said they never opened the windows to their master bathrooms. That may have allowed exhaust fans to recirculate contaminated air throughout those rooms. Poor ventilation may have also helped the virus survive in high concentrations in drainage pipes as it traveled between floors.

The researchers think it was no coincidence that the middle-aged couples who got sick lived on a higher floor than the five-person family, since warm air rises in buildings during winter months. Scientists call it the “chimney effect.”

To make matters worse, the middle-aged couples said they didn’t regularly use their bathtubs, which might have caused the water seals in their tubs to dry out. That could make it easier for bioaerosols to seep through.

A striking resemblance to a SARS outbreak in Hong Kong

The Guangzhou outbreak isn’t the only documented instance of the coronavirus appearing to travel through plumbing pipes.

In March, a couple living on the 32nd floor of a public-housing development in Hong Kong seemed to pass the virus to a 59-year-old man living two floors above them. Then in June, a 34-year-old woman, also in Hong Kong public housing, appeared to spread the virus to four other apartments that shared the same vertical drainage pipes.

Scientists often point to one past example to show how bioaerosol transmission is possible: In 2003, a patient infected with SARS used the toilet in a housing complex in Hong Kong. The virus then traveled to more than 300 other residents in the complex. Researchers later concluded that virus-laden bioaerosols were to blame.

According to a 2004 study, the SARS patient had “extremely high concentrations” of the virus in their feces and urine. After that person flushed the toilet, bioaerosols may have entered the building’s air shaft because the exhaust fan was running and the bathroom door was closed.

From there, a plume may have traveled to the building’s upper apartments. An investigative team from the World Health Organization found that the seals in the floor drains had dried out in many of those apartments.

But, like the new Guangzhou research, conclusions about the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong were based on circumstantial evidence: The epidemiologists can’t prove bioaerosol transmission occurred. Instead, they deemed it the most plausible explanation after other theories were ruled out.

As scientists continue to study coronavirus aerosols, public-health experts have suggested that people in apartments open their bathroom windows, run the tub more frequently, and close their toilet lids.

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

The News And Times: “Both the observed infections and the locations of positive environmental samples are consistent with the vertical spread of virus-laden aerosols via these stacks and vents.” – Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a High-Rise Building | Annal
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 08:51:59 -0400
News Reviews In Brief Posts – 22/09/20 06:32» Trump Investigations from Michael_Novakhov (124 sites): mikenov on Twitter: Both the observed infections and the locations of positive environmental samples are consistent with the vertical spread of virus-laden aerosols via these stacks and vents.Trans22/09/20 06:32 from News Reviews from Michael_Novakhov (14 sites)Both the observed infections and

The News And Times

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 22/09/20 05:56 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) And the company’s fast spit test could help people live with it more safely. Sullivan is pushing
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 07:26:08 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from The Disease X-19.

22/09/20 05:56 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)

And the company’s fast spit test could help people live with it more safely. Sullivan is pushing 

 

Disease X-19 News Review In Brief

_________________________________________________

 

» Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_Novakhov (38 sites): Google Alert – saliva coronavirus test: Fast, Frequent And Cheap COVID-19 Tests Hold Promise For Hawaii
22/09/20 05:56 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)
And the company’s fast spit test could help people live with it more safely. Sullivan is pushing something he calls The Aloha Protocol for tourists: a … Google Alert – saliva coronavirus test Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Micha…

» Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_Novakhov (38 sites): Google Alert – saliva coronavirus test: University of Florida offers saliva swabs for COVID-19 testing
22/09/20 05:48 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)
The UF Health Screen, Test & Protect initiative on Saturday began offering saliva coronavirus testing for UF students, faculty and staff, a method of … Google Alert – saliva coronavirus test Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Mich…

» Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_Novakhov (38 sites): Google Alert – coronavirus vaccine: Coronavirus vaccine update: COVID-19 vaccine could arrive by early 2021, delivery still an issue …
22/09/20 05:11 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)
However, adding a word of caution, the scientist also said that the vaccine would only be given the go-ahead if observers see good and safe results. If … Google Alert – coronavirus vaccine Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_N…

» Disease X-19 Symptoms from Michael_Novakhov (16 sites): Google Alert – coronavirus symptoms: COVID-19 Long-Haulers: ‘Infuriated’ and Unheard
22/09/20 05:11 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)
However, Pryce has been struggling with coronavirus symptoms for six months and says she can tell the difference. I’m 47 years old and I’ve lived a … Google Alert – coronavirus symptoms Disease X-19 Symptoms from Michael_Novakhov…

» Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_Novakhov (38 sites): Google Alert – coronavirus in animals: Horseshoe crabs have a vital role in the development of a coronavirus vaccine. Here’s why.
22/09/20 05:00 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)
But in 1963, Burgenson didn’t know that inside each of those ancient animals he saved was something that would help save millions of us during his … Google Alert – coronavirus in animals Disease X-19 Epidemiology from Michael_Nova…

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: SARS-CoV-2: The Growing Case for Potential Transmission in a Building via Wastewater Plumbing Systems
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 06:35:52 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is a stark reminder of the role people and buildings play in the transmission of viruses. The pandemic has led us to review all building systems, particularly those involving airflow, and all procedures and system phenomena that produce aerosols. There is a growing body of evidence that built environment systems contribute to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In their current report, Kang and colleagues (1) add wastewater plumbing systems to the catalogue of potential transmission pathways in buildings (1).

Viral transmission dynamics fall into 2 main groups: direct contact between an infected and a susceptible person and indirect contact by a susceptible person with virus shed in droplets or aerosols from an infected person. Indirect transmission occurs when a susceptible person touches a surface contaminated by droplets or aerosols containing infectious virus and then touches their mouth or nose, or by inhaling infective droplets or aerosols from environmental systems.

Kang and colleagues report a case in which transmission probably occurred by indirect contact in an apartment building: Viral particles seem to have been carried on air streams within the pipe network and entered the interior of the building from the wastewater system. Aerosols, typically less than 5 µm in diameter, are light enough to be carried in air, whereas larger droplets tend to fall out of the air before traveling long distances. Kang and colleagues describe a situation in which infectious aerosols may have been formed as the result of turbulent flows within a wastewater plumbing system containing virus-laden feces.

Several studies have investigated the shedding of viral particles in feces (23). Most of these studies looked for evidence of viral RNA in fecal samples; however, the transmission route that Kang and colleagues propose relies on the infectivity of the virus in fecal droplets and aerosols. Although some evidence exists for this, it is weak and based on small studies and case reports. Establishing infectivity is much more complicated than establishing the presence of viral RNA, so more definitive evidence is anticipated to emerge with time.

Work by my team identified the mechanisms involved in transmission dynamics between 2 different interconnected yet separate spaces within a building (45). The work was in response to the World Health Organization (WHO) report in 2003 (6) of a SARS outbreak in Amoy Gardens, a housing complex in Hong Kong, which led to the infection of 321 persons and resulted in 42 deaths (78). The WHO hypothesized that empty U-traps in the plumbing system created a pathway for virus-laden droplets and aerosols to enter bathrooms and spread the infection as residents touched contaminated surfaces. The transmission pathway was aided by mechanical bathroom extract fans and favorable outdoor air conditions, which allowed an additional transmission pathway on the outside of the building.

The Amoy Gardens case highlights the challenges of epidemiologic studies on transmission in high-rise buildings. Kang and colleagues faced similar issues as they struggled to piece together the transmission between different floors in the building they investigated. One of the challenges highlighted in their article is the presence of evidence after the event. They emphasized that in the apartments where the suspected infections occurred, efforts to disinfect the bathroom may have destroyed the evidence in the U-traps. They verified this in apartments 802, 1602, 2102, and 2702, where tracer gas released into the wastewater drainage stack at apartment 1502 was detected in each unit, thus confirming that no water was present in the U-traps. The authors’ use of closed circuit television footage to assess movement of the building’s occupants, along with the strict restrictions on movement by the authorities, supports the conclusion that infection spread through the wastewater system. However, the authors cast appropriate caution about their findings and have not overstated the evidence.

Although evidence is building, it is not yet strong enough to warrant wide-scale interventionbut does warrant some precautions. The authors and others working in this field highlight the possibility that a virus, such as SARS-CoV-2, may be transmitted in the manner described by Kang and colleagues (1). However, building wastewater systems are a potential reservoir for many other viruses and bacteria; even in the absence of SARS-CoV-2, this is a cause for concern. After the SARS outbreak of 2002 to 2003, efforts to formally regulate wastewater systemssimilar to regulation of water supply systems to control such pathogens as Legionellafailed to gain traction. Other innovations developed at that time to deal with air pressure surges, a common cause of empty U-traps in high-rise buildings, are currently used in some locales but are not common practice (9). In another development, a method was invented to determine whether a system is sealed, but this likewise has not been used widely (10).

In conclusion, Kang and colleagues add to the growing body of evidence that wastewater plumbing systems, particularly those in high-rise buildings, deserve closer investigation, both immediately in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and in the long term, because they may be a reservoir for other harmful pathogens.

This article was published at <a href=”http://Annals.org” rel=”nofollow”>Annals.org</a> on 1 September 2020

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 5:58 AM 9/22/2020 – Tweets: U.S. CDC takes down coronavirus airborne transmission guidance – Reuters | NYPD officer arrested for helping China spy on citys Tibetan community – New York Daily News | Gormley M. SARS-CoV
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 06:09:43 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from Tweets And News – From Michael Novakhov.

 

  1. Michael Novakhov@mikenov

    U.S. CDC takes down coronavirus airborne transmission guidance | Reuters https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-cdc-airborne/us-cdc-takes-down-warning-on-airborne-spread-of-covid-19-idUSKCN26C23O 

    U.S. CDC takes down coronavirus airborne transmission guidance

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Monday took down its guidance warning on possible airborne transmission of the novel coronavirus, saying that the draft recommendation was…

    reuters.com

  2. Michael Novakhov Retweeted

    CNN Politics

    @CNNPolitics

    The US has reimposed UN sanctions on Iran, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo says https://cnn.it/2RKKcT6 

    US has reimposed UN sanctions on Iran, Pompeo says

    Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said Saturday evening that the US has reimposed UN sanctions against Iran, a move expected to be effectively ignored by global allies and adversaries alike.

    cnn.com

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: NYPD officer arrested for helping China spy on citys Tibetan community – New York Daily News
Tue, 22 Sep 2020 05:30:24 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

An NYPD cop was arrested for spying on local Tibetan communities for the Chinese government, federal prosecutors announced Monday.

Officer Baimadajie Angwang, 33, a community affairs cop with the 111th Precinct in Queens of Tibetan origin, reported to two Chinese consulate officials in the city since 2014, according to a criminal complaint filed Monday.

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Baimadajie Angwang violated every oath he took in this country. One to the United States, another to the U.S. Army, and a third to this Police Department, NYPD Commissioner Dermot Shea said in a statement.

The investigation into Angwang found that he reported on the activities of ethnic Tibetans, and others, in the New York metropolitan area to the Consulate, and spotted and assessed potential ethnic Tibetan intelligence sources in the New York metropolitan area.

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Tibet has been occupied by China since 1951, which has created a decades-old independence movement.

Since 2018, Angwang was in constant communication with one Chinese consulate official, whom he referred to as boss,” according to the feds. The official allegedly was assigned to the China Association for Preservation and Development of Tibetan Culture division of Chinas United Front Work Department.

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The division is responsible for neutralizing sources of potential opposition to the policies and authority of China, according to federal prosecutors.

In late October 2018, Angwang told the official about a new Tibetan community center in Queens and said the two should visit it, according to the complaint.

If its good or not, you need to know about this for your works sake. They are the biggest venue for activities right now. If they are involved with politics, then in the future more than half of the meetings might take place there, Angwang said during the conversation, the feds claim.

Angwang also invited the consulate official to NYPD events to raise our countrys soft power, according to the court filing. He told the official that he could provide non-public information regarding the internal operations of the NYPD, according to the complaint.

Between June 2018 and March 2020, Angwang spoke with the consulate official by telephone at least 53 times, according to the feds.

In one instance in February 2019, Angwang suggested that a good intelligence source could be a Tibetan-American man who had recently run for political office and lost, the feds said.

I think this person, this person has a very good political future, Angwang said, adding that the man did not have “extreme views on China, according to the complaint.

The cops alleged spy work for the Chinese Communist Party was all the more shocking because Angwang received asylum in the United States after he claimed he was tortured by China because he was ethnically Tibetan, the feds said in the complaint.

In reality, Angwangs parents are both members of the Chinese Communist Party, according to the court filing. His father was in the army in China and his mother worked a government job.

Angwang, who was also employed by the U.S. Army Reserves, had a secret level security clearance from the Department of Defense.

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Pro-independence Tibetan activists in New York were dismayed, but not necessarily surprised by the arrest.

“Tibetans have long known about THE Chinese government trying to infiltrate our communities and with this incident its proof that they not only spy on the Tibetan community but directly hinder and cause problems and try to sabotage our political work, our freedom work, even in the free United States, said Dorjee Tseten, a Queens-based Tibetan activist and executive director of Students for a Free Tibet.

The Disease X-19: 21/09/20 18:52 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) Blumenthal says, no matter how mild symptoms are, any child that needs to return to daycare or
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 19:20:02 -0400
21/09/20 18:52 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites)Blumenthal says, no matter how mild symptoms are, any child that needs to return to daycare orDisease X-19 diseasex19.orgDisease X-19 News Review In Brief_________________________________________________» Disease X-19 Symptoms from Michael_Novakhov (16 sites): Google Alert – coronavirus symptoms: Pediatrician: All Kids With Cold

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Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 7:08 PM 9/21/2020 – Tweets by @mikenov: CDC reverses itself and says guidelines it posted on coronavirus airborne transmission were wrong – The Washington Post
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 19:12:09 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from The Disease X-19.

7:08 PM 9/21/2020 – Tweets CDC reverses itself and says guidelines it posted on coronavirus airborne transmission were wrong – The Washington Post

 

 

  1. Michael Novakhov@mikenov

    CDC reverses itself and says guidelines it posted on coronavirus airborne transmission were wrong – The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/09/21/cdc-covid-aerosols-airborne-guidelines/ 

    CDC reverses itself and says guidelines it posted on coronavirus airborne transmission were wrong

    Jay Butler, the CDCs deputy director for infectious disease, said the Friday update saying it was possible that the virus spreads via airborne transmission was posted in error.

    washingtonpost.com

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    American woman compares Donald Trump to HITLER during emotional rant https://trib.al/t1iMyK8

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: cdc – Google Search
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 19:02:35 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 11:38 AM 9/21/2020 – Recent Posts
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 11:41:58 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from The News And Times.

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks | In Brief | 

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks 
11:04 AM 9/21/2020 – M.N.: Finally, it was admitted. Now: connection with rodents and hantaviruses which have the same mode of transmission. COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectious Disease Advisor
COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols
9:49 AM 9/21/2020 – NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
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21/09/20 06:07 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) Coronavirus : 50,000 new daily cases by mid-October at current rate. Ross McGuinness. ,. Yahoo
5:44 AM 9/21/2020 – The chronicles of Trumpistan: Was That Ride on the Trump Train Worth It? – NYT
Opinion | Was That Ride on the Trump Train Worth It?
20/09/20 06:52 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) Depending on the symptoms which a child feeling ill shows to school nurses, the school may call parents to pick up the child and arrange for a COVID
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12:13 PM 9/19/2020 – Civil unrest in America as the political tool: A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly. But the traitor moves amongst those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself. Marcus Tullius Cicero | M.N.: This is applied equally to both the Left and the Right.
Civil unrest in America as the political tool – Google Search google.com/search?q=civil pic.twitter.com/IZ7uV54Wd2
11:26 AM 9/19/2020 – Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: Rochester shooting and other stories
mikenov on Twitter: rochester shooting Google Search google.com/search?q=roche pic.twitter.com/vchSKjWhQ0
Jewish figures pave the way behind the scenes in Trumps staff
10:05 AM 9/19/2020 – Jews (of Nazi kapos, e.g. Kushner) and their money (Nazi Gold) behind the New Abwehr agent Trump
Is the robbed “Nazi Gold” behind their wealth? Did Jared Kushner’s family serve as Abwehr’s agents and assets in WW2? Did the so called “Bielski partisans” serve in Abwehr? Is their “partisanship” just the pretty Abwehr’s legend, like the so many other myths, legends, and the blatant, brazen disinformation? – 6:18 AM 2/4/2019
Jewish figures pave the way behind the scenes in Trumps staff
4:15 PM 9/18/2020 – The bad case of pot and kettle: Trump calls all Puerto Rico politicians corrupt
3:40 PM 9/18/2020 – Fraser Cameron, understood to be a former member of MI6, Britain’s overseas intelligence agency, is alleged to have passed secrets to Chinese spies in return for payments running into thousands of Euros.
Trump offered to pardon Assange if he provided source for …
» mikenov on Twitter: “Nato Russia” – Google News: Russian military says US flights near Crimea fuel tensions – Washington Post
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Trump Attacks FBI Director Christopher Wray for Warning on Russian Election Meddling
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Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 11:04 AM 9/21/2020 – M.N.: Finally, it was admitted. Now: connection with rodents and hantaviruses which have the same mode of transmission. COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectiou
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 11:13:26 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from The Disease X-19.

 11:04 AM 9/21/2020

M.N.: Finally, it was admitted. Now: connection with rodents and hantaviruses which have the same mode of transmission. COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectious Disease Advisor

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  1. Michael Novakhov@mikenov

    M.N.: Finally, it was admitted. Now: connection with rodents and hantaviruses which have the same mode of transmission.

    COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectious Disease Advisor https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/home/topics/covid19/fecal-aerosol-transmission-sars-cov-2/ 

  2. Michael Novakhov@mikenov

    COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectious Disease Advisor https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/home/topics/covid19/fecal-aerosol-transmission-sars-cov-2/ 

    COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols – Infectious Disease Advisor

    A case of COVID-19 transmission in a high-rise apartment complex in China demonstrates the probable transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through fecal aerosols.

    infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 10:53:59 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from Comments on: COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Probable Through Fecal Aerosols.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be transmitted through fecal aerosols, according to both a study and editorial recently published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.1,2

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a review of all building systems involving airflow and all procedures and systems that produce aerosols. There are 2 main groups of viral transmission: direct contact between an infected and a susceptible person, and indirect contact by a susceptible person with virus shed in droplets or aerosols from an infected person. This indirect transmission occurs when a susceptible person encounters surfaces or air that are contaminated with droplets or aerosols that contain infectious virus, and the virus is transferred to their mouth or nose or inhaled from environmental systems.2

Most authorities state that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted mainly by close contact and fomites; however, there is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 viral particles may shed in feces. Researchers from China investigated a case in which transmission through indirect contact occurred in an apartment building via particles carried on air streams within the pipe network that entered the interior of the building from the wastewater system.1

This reported case involved an outbreak of 9 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a high-rise apartment building (3 vertically aligned flats; block X) in Guangzhou, China, during a period of social distancing.1 Block X includes 29 floors with 3 apartment flats on floors 2 through 28, and 2 flats on floor 29, for a total of 83 flats. In total, 9 infected patients, 193 other residents of the building, and 24 building management staff were included in the case.

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Respiratory Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: What Do We Really Know? David C. Helfgott, MD 23 April 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com Although influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus are considered to be spread by droplets and aerosol transmission, the mode of respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not completely understood. COVID-19: Update on the Origin, Transmission, and Clinical Therapies Infectious Disease Advisor Contributing Writer 3 April 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com A summary of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, has been published. PPE Negative for SARS-CoV-2 After Patient Contact Haymarket Media 31 March 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com Samples from goggles, N95 respirators, shoes of 30 health care workers were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Testing for Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2: Timing Important for Accuracy Cassandra Pardini, PharmD 6 July 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com Serology tests were better at detecting the presence of antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients when they were tested 15 to 35 days post-symptom onset, according to the findings of a recently published review on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Good Prognosis for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and COVID-19 Jessica Nye, PhD 27 May 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had a good overall prognosis, despite IBD maintenance treatment. Invasive Aspergillosis Superinfection Possible in Symptomatic COVID-19 Zahra Masoud 28 July 2020 infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com Critically ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19 particularly those who develop ARDS may also experience an opportunistic aspergillosis superinfection.

Symptom onset dates and flat locations of the 9 residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained. All infections were confirmed via throat swab and RNA test results. Associated environmental variables were examined to verify the role of fecal aerosols, including closed circuit television footage used to assess the movement of the buildings occupants; 237 surface and air samples taken from 11 of the flats, public areas, and building drainage systems; and tracer gas that was released into bathrooms as a surrogate for virus-laden aerosols in the drainage system.

Results suggest that fecal aerosol transmission may have caused the community COVID-19 outbreak based on circumstantial evidence. The 9 infected patients included 3 families. The first family had history of travel to Wuhan, China, the epicenter of COVID-19; the other 2 families had no travel history and a later onset of symptoms. The families lived in 3 vertically aligned flats that were connected by drainage pipes in the master bathrooms. The observed infections and the locations of positive environmental samples are consistent with the vertical spread of virus-laden aerosols via these stacks and vents. There was no evidence found for transmission via the elevator or elsewhere.

Michael Gormley, PhD, of the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, pointed out in his accompanying editorial that the study add[s] to the growing body of evidence that wastewater plumbing systems, particularly those in high-rise buildings, deserve closer investigation, both immediately in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and in the long term, because they may be a reservoir for other harmful pathogens.1

References

  1. Kang M, Wei J, Yuan J, et al. Probable evidence of fecal aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a high-rise building [published online September 1, 2020]. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M20-0928
  2. Gormley M. SARS-CoV-2: the growing case for potential transmission in a building via wastewater plumbing systems [published online September 1, 2020]. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M20-6134

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be transmitted through fecal aerosols, according to both a study and editorial recently published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.1,2

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a review of all building systems involving airflow and all procedures and systems that produce aerosols. There are 2 main groups of viral transmission: direct contact between an infected and a susceptible person, and indirect contact by a susceptible person with virus shed in droplets or aerosols from an infected person. This indirect transmission occurs when a susceptible person encounters surfaces or air that are contaminated with droplets or aerosols that contain infectious virus, and the virus is transferred to their mouth or nose or inhaled from environmental systems.2

 

Most authorities state that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted mainly by close contact and fomites; however, there is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 viral particles may shed in feces. Researchers from China investigated a case in which transmission through indirect contact occurred in an apartment building via particles carried on air streams within the pipe network that entered the interior of the building from the wastewater system.1

This reported case involved an outbreak of 9 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a high-rise apartment building (3 vertically aligned flats; block X) in Guangzhou, China, during a period of social distancing.1 Block X includes 29 floors with 3 apartment flats on floors 2 through 28, and 2 flats on floor 29, for a total of 83 flats. In total, 9 infected patients, 193 other residents of the building, and 24 building management staff were included in the case.

Symptom onset dates and flat locations of the 9 residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained. All infections were confirmed via throat swab and RNA test results. Associated environmental variables were examined to verify the role of fecal aerosols, including closed circuit television footage used to assess the movement of the buildings occupants; 237 surface and air samples taken from 11 of the flats, public areas, and building drainage systems; and tracer gas that was released into bathrooms as a surrogate for virus-laden aerosols in the drainage system.

Results suggest that fecal aerosol transmission may have caused the community COVID-19 outbreak based on circumstantial evidence. The 9 infected patients included 3 families. The first family had history of travel to Wuhan, China, the epicenter of COVID-19; the other 2 families had no travel history and a later onset of symptoms. The families lived in 3 vertically aligned flats that were connected by drainage pipes in the master bathrooms. The observed infections and the locations of positive environmental samples are consistent with the vertical spread of virus-laden aerosols via these stacks and vents. There was no evidence found for transmission via the elevator or elsewhere.

Michael Gormley, PhD, of the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, pointed out in his accompanying editorial that the study add[s] to the growing body of evidence that wastewater plumbing systems, particularly those in high-rise buildings, deserve closer investigation, both immediately in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and in the long term, because they may be a reservoir for other harmful pathogens.1

References

  1. Kang M, Wei J, Yuan J, et al. Probable evidence of fecal aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a high-rise building [published online September 1, 2020]. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M20-0928
  2. Gormley M. SARS-CoV-2: the growing case for potential transmission in a building via wastewater plumbing systems [published online September 1, 2020]. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M20-6134

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: 9:49 AM 9/21/2020 – NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 10:27:49 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from The Brooklyn News And Times.

9:49 AM 9/21/2020 – NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ

FILE PHOTO: New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio, his wife Chirlane Irene McCray and Reverend Al Sharpton paint a "Black Lives Matter" along 5th avenue outside Trump Tower in New York City

“New York City was among three cities labeled anarchist jurisdictions by the Justice Department on Sunday and targeted to lose federal money for failing to control protesters and defunding cops, The Post has learned.

Portland, Ore., and Seattle, Wash., were the other two cities on the list, which was approved by US Attorney General William Barr.

When state and local leaders impede their own law enforcement officers and agencies from doing their jobs, it endangers innocent citizens who deserve to be protected, including those who are trying to peacefully assemble and protest, Barr said in a statement set to be released Monday.

We cannot allow federal tax dollars to be wasted when the safety of the citizenry hangs in the balance, the AG added.

It is my hope that the cities identified by the Department of Justice today will reverse course and become serious about performing the basic function of government and start protecting their own citizens.”

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks | In Brief | 

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks 
NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
8:02 AM 9/21/2020 – FBI Reform fbireform.com
21/09/20 06:07 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) Coronavirus : 50,000 new daily cases by mid-October at current rate. Ross McGuinness. ,. Yahoo
5:44 AM 9/21/2020 – The chronicles of Trumpistan: Was That Ride on the Trump Train Worth It? – NYT
Opinion | Was That Ride on the Trump Train Worth It?
20/09/20 06:52 from Disease X-19 from Michael_Novakhov (82 sites) Depending on the symptoms which a child feeling ill shows to school nurses, the school may call parents to pick up the child and arrange for a COVID
Trump Makes America More Like Russia Every Day
12:13 PM 9/19/2020 – Civil unrest in America as the political tool: A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly. But the traitor moves amongst those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself. Marcus Tullius Cicero | M.N.: This is applied equally to both the Left and the Right.
Civil unrest in America as the political tool – Google Search google.com/search?q=civil pic.twitter.com/IZ7uV54Wd2
11:26 AM 9/19/2020 – Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: Rochester shooting and other stories
mikenov on Twitter: rochester shooting Google Search google.com/search?q=roche pic.twitter.com/vchSKjWhQ0
Jewish figures pave the way behind the scenes in Trumps staff
10:05 AM 9/19/2020 – Jews (of Nazi kapos, e.g. Kushner) and their money (Nazi Gold) behind the New Abwehr agent Trump
Is the robbed “Nazi Gold” behind their wealth? Did Jared Kushner’s family serve as Abwehr’s agents and assets in WW2? Did the so called “Bielski partisans” serve in Abwehr? Is their “partisanship” just the pretty Abwehr’s legend, like the so many other myths, legends, and the blatant, brazen disinformation? – 6:18 AM 2/4/2019
Jewish figures pave the way behind the scenes in Trumps staff
4:15 PM 9/18/2020 – The bad case of pot and kettle: Trump calls all Puerto Rico politicians corrupt
3:40 PM 9/18/2020 – Fraser Cameron, understood to be a former member of MI6, Britain’s overseas intelligence agency, is alleged to have passed secrets to Chinese spies in return for payments running into thousands of Euros.
Trump offered to pardon Assange if he provided source for …
» mikenov on Twitter: “Nato Russia” – Google News: Russian military says US flights near Crimea fuel tensions – Washington Post
7:41 AM 9/18/2020 – Tweets by @mikenov: Trump attacks FBI Director Christopher Wray for warning on Russian election meddling
Trump Attacks FBI Director Christopher Wray for Warning on Russian Election Meddling
12:34 PM 9/17/2020 – That’s how Trump will turn America into a POLICE State! Military Police Considered Using Heat Ray on White House Protesters, Whistle-Blower Says – NYT | Military Police Considered Using Controversial Heat Ray Against D.C. Protesters : NPR | adam demarco – Google Search
adam demarco – Google Search
Military Police Considered Using Heat Ray on White House Protesters, Whistle-Blower Says
Military Police Considered Using Controversial Heat Ray Against D.C. Protesters : NPR

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks 
NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
Michael_Novakhov Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks: NYC branded an ‘anarchist jurisdiction,’ targeted for defunding: DOJ
Mon, 21 Sep 2020 09:39:05 -0400

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from Steven Nelson New York Post.

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