Corresponding Author: Stuart C. Sealfon, MD, Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Bottom Line: Although antibodies induced by infection to SARS-CoV-2 are largely protective, they do not guarantee effective immunity against subsequent infection, as evidenced through a longitudinal, prospective study of young Marine recruits. Previously infected study participants identified by seropositivity are susceptible to repeat infection, with nearly one-fifth the incidence rate of those without evidence of previous infection. Among the seropositive group, those who became infected again had lower antibody titers than those that were uninfected, and most lacked detectable baseline neutralizing antibodies. Findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccination may be necessary for control of the pandemic in previously infected young adults.
Results: Among 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10.1%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the six-week follow-up. In contrast, 1,079 (48.0%) of the 2,246 seronegative participants tested positive. The incidence rate ratio was 0.18 (95% CI 0.11-0.28, p<0.00001). Among seropositive recruits, infection was associated with lower baseline full-length protein IgG titers (p=<0.0001). Compared with seronegative recruits, seropositive recruits had about 10-fold lower viral loads and trended towards shorter duration of PCR positivity (p=0.18) and more asymptomatic infections (p=0.13). Among seropositive participants, baseline neutralizing titers were detected in 45 of 54 (83.3%) uninfected and in 6of 19 (31.6%) infected participants during the 6 weeks of observation.
Why the Research Is Interesting: With the onset of mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs and the increasing proportion of previously infected individuals, the risk of reinfection after natural infection is an important question for modeling the pandemic, estimating herd immunity, and guiding vaccination strategies. And since young adults, of whom a high percentage are asymptomatically infected and become seropositive in the absence of known infection, can therefore be a source of transmission to more vulnerable populations, it’s important to evaluate protection against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection conferred by seropositivity to determine the need for vaccinating previously infected individuals in this age group.
Who: Scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, in collaboration with researchers from the Naval Medical Research Center, utilized the COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines (CHARM) study, a longitudinal, prospective cohort study that has been previously described and published in NEJM, to examine how protective detectable antibodies are to preventing subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The study population consisted of 3,249 predominantly male, 18-20-year-old Marine recruits who, upon arrival at a Marine-supervised two-week quarantine prior to entering basic training, were assessed for baseline SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity (defined as a 1:150 dilution or greater on receptor binding domain and full-length spike protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent [ELISA] assays.) The presence of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by PCR at initiation, middle and end of quarantine. After appropriate exclusions, including participants with a positive PCR during quarantine, the study team performed three bi-weekly PCR tests in both seronegative and seropositive groups once recruits left quarantine and entered basic training.
When: All study data was collected between May and October, 2020. The prospective study observation period began when Marine recruits arrived at Marine Corps Recruit Depot – Parris Island (MCRDPI) to commence basic training.
What: The study evaluated protection against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection conferred by seropositivity in young adults to determine the need for vaccinating previously infected individuals in this age group.
How: After appropriate exclusions, including participants with a positive PCR during quarantine, the study team performed three biweekly PCR tests in both seropositive and in seronegative groups once recruits left quarantine and entered basic training and baseline neutralizing antibody titers on all subsequently infected seropositive and selected seropositive uninfected participants.
Study Conclusions: Seropositive young adults had about one-fifth the risk of subsequent infection compared with seronegative individuals. Although antibodies inducted by initial infection are largely protective, they do not guarantee effective SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity or immunity against subsequent infection. These findings may be relevant for optimization of mass vaccination strategies.
Funding: Defense Health Agency and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Said Mount Sinai's Dr. Stuart Sealfon of this work: "Our findings indicate that reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 in healthy young adults is common."
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Posted January 29, 2021 on MedRxiv
2:50 AM 2/21/2021 Tweets by @mikenov Michael Novakhov Retweeted The New York Times ✔ @nytimes A jazz bar in Paris. The Hogwarts library. A coffee shop on a rainy day. Welcome to the world of ambience videos, a close cousin of ASMR which pairs soothing soundscapes with animated scenery to make viewers feel immersed and relaxed in specific spaces. https:// nyti.ms/3pCCtFg The Soothing, Digital Rooms of YouTube Ambience videos pair relaxing soundscapes with animated scenery to make viewers feel immersed in specific spaces, like a cozy library. They’re big with “Harry Potter” fans. nytimes.com 25 m Michael Novakhov Retweeted NBC News ✔ @NBCNews UK Supreme Court rules that Uber drivers should be classed as “workers” and not self employed, in a decision that threatens the company’s business model and holds broader implications for the so-called gig economy. https:// nbcnews.to/2ZC1p52 Uber drivers are workers, U.K.'s top court rules The decision threatens the business
9:39 AM 2/28/2021 - Experts concerned about Pope Francis' trip to Iraq Michael Novakhov's favorite articles on Inoreader At-Home Covid Testing Is Here posted at 14:24:26 UTC by Wudan Yan via The New York Times But does it work? 28ah-INTERIORS-02-moth.jpg Lewandowski’s Scoring Is Reaching Absurd Levels After His Latest Brace - The18 posted at 14:25:10 UTC via "mueller" - Google News Lewandowski’s Scoring Is Reaching Absurd Levels After His Latest Brace The18 Fauci urges Americans to take the vaccine available to them when eligible posted at 14:25:31 UTC (updated on Sun Feb 28, 2021 14:36) by Ben Kamisar via NBC News Top Stories Dr. Anthony Fauci says trial data shouldn't be compared for the three vaccines because they were not tested at the same time. image/jpeg 210228-mtp-fauci-jm-0910_86a798cd87bd98e8d9ae18dfc205e2b6.jpg Trump News TV from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): bbcnews's YouTube Videos: Maid in Lebanon: 'My employer treats me lik
3:35 PM 10/6/2020 - Saved Stories and Video News Review Saved Stories | Page | Links | News Playlist on YouTube Saved Stories | Page | Links __________________________________________________ Saved Stories - None Countering Trump, US officials defend integrity of election - Beatrice Daily Sun Far-Right Extremism Taints German Security Services in Hundreds of Cases Belarus Protesters Face Physical, Social Repression euronewsru's YouTube Videos: НПО против правительства Сирии Russian Scientists Report 'Mass Death' Of Sea Life Off Kamchatka Peninsula DHS: White Supremacists The Most Persistent and Lethal Threat Within the U.S. - U.S. News & World Report deutschewellerussian's YouTube Videos: Траур в Нижнем Новгороде: как прощались с Ириной Славиной (06.10.2020) DNI declassifies Brennan notes, CIA memo on Hillary Clinton 'stirring up' scandal between Trump, Russia - Fox News Letter: American democracy won't survive four more years with Tr
10:29 AM 11/1/2020 Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ – michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ – michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com Pages Current News Links and Pages – michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ In 25 Posts MikeNova12 YT Videos News Reading List News Reviews In Brief Posts – michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com The News And Times Categories Featured (Sticky) Posts (1) Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ (104) Mike Nova's favorite articles on Inoreader (2) Uncategorized (2) Archives November 2020 (5) October 2020 (101) Recent Posts – Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ Selected News Articles November 1, 2020 Hunter Biden second laptop and psychiatrist Dr Keith Ablow: A November (2020) surprise?! November 1, 2020 4:58 AM 11/1/2020 – Tweets by @mikenov November 1, 2020 4:03 AM 11/1/2020 – The News And Times – Blogs November 1, 2020 Trump Investigations – 3:34 AM 11/1/2020 November 1, 2020 Current a
2:50 PM 10/6/2020 - With Fish Dying And Talk Of Rocket Fuel In The Water, Residents Of Russia's Kamchatka Want Answers Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty: With Fish Dying And Talk Of Rocket Fuel In The Water, Residents Of Russia's Kamchatka Want Answers Some experts fear that toxic rocket fuel could be behind Russia's latest ecological disaster, a mysterious event that has left residents ill and hundreds of marine carcasses strewn on the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Saved Stories and Video News Review Saved Stories | Page | Links | News Playlist on YouTube Saved Stories | Page | Links __________________________________________________ Saved Stories - None FOX News: Flawless 102-carat diamond sells for 'bargain' $15.7 million at Sotheby's auction News's YouTube Videos: McAfee software creator jailed in Spain News's YouTube Videos: AP Top Stories October 6 A News's YouTube Videos: Trump Returns To WH, Says To Not Be Afraid Of Coron
2:18 PM 10/6/2020 - Twitter, Facebook censor Trump's message comparing coronavirus to flu Saved Stories and Video News Review Saved Stories | Page | Links | News Playlist on YouTube Saved Stories | Page | Links __________________________________________________ Saved Stories - None Former Oklahoma jail employees played Baby Shark on repeat for inmates: charges 1:38 PM 10/6/2020 - Major hurricane brews in Gulf of Mexico, threatens Louisiana, Florida | Hopes of a ceasefire fading in Nagorno-Karabakh amid flare-up of violence Глава СКР Бастрыкин отправил криминалистов к загрязненному пляжу на Камчатке Pentagon's Joint Chiefs In Quarantine After Coast Guard Officer Tests Postive U.S. military leaders under quarantine after official tests positive for coronavirus Few far-right cases in German security agencies, review finds Fight against gay marriage still 'alive and well' in U.S., advocates warn Песков сообщил о «четкой установке» прояснить ситуацию на К
Michael Novakhov - SharedNewsLinks℠ - michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com Current News Reading List From Michael Novakhov - Page | Mike Nova's favorite articles on Inoreader On RSS Dog | Headlines | In Brief | In 250 Posts on RSS Dog | Saved and Shared Stories In Brief | In 250 Posts on RSS Dog | ______________________________________________ 8:29 AM 11/4/2020 Mike Nova's favorite articles on Inoreader European leaders react with caution as Trump falsely claims victory - The Guardian Race too close to call after polls close as it happened - The Guardian When will we know the US election result? - The Guardian OK, America, so what the hell happens now? - The Guardian Could Trump really settle US election result in the supreme court? - The Guardian US Election 2020: Tighter than expected vote may take days to resolve - BBC News Live Election Forecast: Presidential Battleground States - The New York Times Senate Election Results 2020 - The New York Times US E
Selected News Articles - 8:36 AM 11/1/2020 Mike Nova's favorite articles on Inoreader France: President Macron says he understands Muslim shock over Prophet cartoons Several injured after hayride accident - WTVY Global Security News- globalsecuritynews.org: Mike Novas favorite articles on Inoreader: FOX News: Federal judge orders USPS to take extraordinary measures to deliver mail-in ballots on time The National Interest: When Victory Means Loss: Imperial Japans Win at Coral Sea Came at a High Price "us national security" - Google News: At Least 51 Dead in Turkey, Greek Islands Earthquake - Voice of America Stars and Stripes: UK says four-week coronavirus lockdown may have to last longer Trump: 5 or more countries to make peace with Israel after election - The Jerusalem Post EU Sanctions Russian Officials Over Navalny Poisoning, Citing Chemical Weapons Use - KVNF Public Radio The China Ambassador's Son Who Got Rich in Trump's Swamp - The Intercept Trumpism And
Shared Links - Audio Posts Review - Post Link Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ – michaelnovakhov-sharednewslinks.com Recent Posts – Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠ Biden Administration Announces Sanctions on Russia in Navalny Case March 3, 2021 Trump is facing probes from 5 independently elected investigators March 3, 2021 Stop this Communist style heroization of FBI-KGB and INVESTIGATE (THE PSYCHOPATHIC, MAFIA-LIKE STRUCTURED AND MAFIA-LIKE THINKING) INVESTIGATORS! Put the FBI criminals in prison! March 3, 2021 Domestic Terrorism Threat Is ‘Metastasizing’ in US, FBI Director Says | Chuck Rosenberg: FBI ‘Needed To Go A Step Further’ In Communicating Report Of Violence At Capitol March 3, 2021 U.S. sanctions several Russians in 1st official response to Navalny case March 2, 2021 FBI Director Christopher Wray Testifies on January 6th U.S. Capitol Attack March 2, 2021 Can Merrick Garland ensure a fair, independent probe into Cuomo scandals? – Video News Review – 8:17 AM 3/2/2021 Ma
Coronavirus second wave continues to hit Europe, with France seeing highest daily infections ever - https://twitter.com/MailOnline/status/1314144294379286530 https://thenewsandtimes.blogspot.com/2020/10/705-am-1082020-germany-sees-worrying.html 7:05 AM 10/8/2020 – Germany sees ‘worrying jump’ in Covid-19 cases | Coronavirus second wave continues to hit Europe, with France seeing highest daily infections ever https://thenewsandtimes.blogspot.com/2020/10/705-am-1082020-germany-sees-worrying.html NewsLynx℠ – NewsLynx.net News Channels – Page | News Channels – Blogger Page ___________________________________ News Reviews https://www.newsblur.com/reader/folder_rss/86178/5d8daaf24dd7/unread/news-reviews News Reviews from Michael_Novakhov (13 sites) 1. VIDEO NEWS from Michael_Novakhov (72 sites): france24english’s YouTube Videos: Germany sees ‘worrying jump’ in Covid-19 cases 1. VIDEO NEWS from Michael_Novakhov (72 sites): france24english’s YouTube Videos: Pence and Harris face off in